What is a Cast Steel Globe Valve?

24 Jun,2024

Globe valves provide precise flow control across countless industrial processes. The durable cast steel construction handles high pressures while enabling custom alloys and geometries. 

Characteristics of Cast Steel Globe Valve

> Casting allows more flexibility than forgings
> Custom materials and geometries possible
> Consolidated bodies eliminate leak points
> Precision flow control modulation

When selecting globe valves, key decisions include forged versus cast manufacturing and materials.

Cast Steel Globe Valve – An Overview

Cast steel starts as molten metal that workers pour into molds to form valves, bodies, and components. The key ingredients include carbon steel alloy with 2-3% carbon content, along with various strengthening agents like manganese or silicon.

Casting uses specially shaped molds to form the intricate, hollow body and curved flow path inside globe valves. This differs from forging, where metal workers apply force to shape solid blocks. Cast parts feature an as-solidified grain structure unseen in forged items.

After cooling, technicians machine the cast globes to final dimensions with great precision. This produces the close tolerances and smooth surfaces required for globe valve functionality. The components are then assembled into the complete valve.

How does cast steel globe valve work?

Globe valves operate with a plug-and-seat concept to stop flow. The plug connects to a stem that raises or lowers it into the flow stream. On the bottom, a machined seat rings the valve body outlet.

To open the valve, technicians turn the handwheel to lift the plug off the seat. Process fluid then flows through the valve body and out the outlet. Closing the valve lowers the plug back into the seat, blocking flow through the sealed contact patch.

This straight-line, perpendicular movement gives globe valves very precise flow control compared to other designs. The large plug-to-seat contact area also enables excellent sealing performance.

Why use cast steel globe valve?

The fine control and low leakage of globe valves suit them well for critical processes that need accurate flow modulation.


Using of Cast Steel Globe Valve

  • Steam systems with varying demand
  • Chemical processing with concentration control
  • Petroleum refining units
  • Throttling services to prevent downstream surges
  • Water treatment metering
  • Cryogenic fluid control

Globe valves also handle high-pressure differential services well, thanks to their sturdy bodies. Their ability to seal bidirectionally makes them effective for flow reversal applications.

What is the difference between cast steel and forged steel globe valves?

Casting and forging produce similar end products, but each metal forming method impacts properties in unique ways. Let’s delve into the comparative advantages of a cast steel globe valve design.

1. Composition Differences

Cast alloys often contain more carbon and silicates than forged steel valve equivalents. The higher carbon content increases hardness, while silicates improve pourability. Forged valves usually utilize simple carbon steel bars.

2. Grain Structures

The solidification process in casting creates randomly oriented grains. This makes cast metal more isotropic or uniform in strength and durability from all directions. Forgings instead have elongated grains that conform to the mechanical deformation pattern.

3. Potential Defects

Shrinkage cavities, gas porosity, and incomplete metal fills can plague cast parts if not carefully controlled. Modern analysis methods like radiographic testing catch most defects. But minor voids may still exist internally. Forged steel avoids this concern because workers shape already solid stock.

4. Machinability

The uniform grain structure of cast steel allows smooth, predictable machining to final dimensions. Tool wear rates remain consistent in all directions. The nonlinear grains of forged metal lead to more variation in machinability.

5. Achievable Tolerances

Modern casting practices provide excellent dimensional accuracy. Certain applications require machining allowances under 0.5mm—easily achieved by precision cast steel globe valves. More distortion happens when deforming forged blanks, limiting feasible tolerances.

6. Part Integration

Casting enables consolidating multiple components into a single body. For example, globe valve bodies, bonnets, and plugs can form one piece. This reduces potential leak points while increasing sturdiness. Forged items always require some sort of assembly.

7. Section Thicknesses

Cast objects easily achieve thicknesses exceeding 50mm in sections. This provides inherent strength and pressure-handling capability. Forgings typically remain under 40mm thick due to the limitations of mechanical deformation processes.

8. Cost Considerations

Forging wins in terms of raw material utilization – starting with preformed blocks reduces waste versus casting. But casting consolidates parts for assembly labor savings. Both methods offer cost efficiencies depending on part complexity.

When should you choose forged or cast globe valves?

With their respective strengths and weaknesses, when should engineers specify a forged or cast steel globe valve?

Forged valves work well for:

  1. Very high pressure or temperature – Forgings handle extremes better thanks to uniform alloys and thicker walls.
  2. Commodity applications – Simple forgings suffice for basic on/off services without special alloys or geometries.
  3. Limited space installations – Compact impeller-style forgings fit tight spots.

Cast valve advantages include:

  1. Custom alloys or geometries – Casting enables specialized materials and flow path shapes.
  2. Consolidated bodies – Multi-component castings eliminate potential leak points.
  3. Processing fluids with particulates – Large cast passages avoid clogs better than forgings.
  4. Throttling services – Cast steel precision enables fine flow control modulation.
  5. Cost savings – Casting can lower total manufacturing expenses.
Engineer’s Choice of Forged or Cast Globe Valves

Ideally, engineers evaluate each application’s pressure parameters, materials compatibility needs, flow control requirements, and budget considerations when deciding between forged or cast steel construction. This helps determine the optimum globe valve selection.

Both production methods have stood the test of time thanks to reliability and customization potential. While forgings handle extremes well, casting allows more flexibility.

Introduction to PANS Cast Steel Valves

PANS is a cast steel globe valve manufacturer that specializes in precision cast steel globe, check, gate, and ball valves for industrial applications. Founded in China in 1985, they now operate a 70,000 square-meter foundry and machine shop facility equipped with a full testing lab.

PANS globe valves feature integral cast bodies with grades ranging from WCB carbon steel all the way to exotic alloys like Hastelloy, Duplex, and titanium. They incorporate unique quick-change trim and seat designs that enable easy field maintenance. PANS serves industries spanning oil and gas transport, chemical processing, power generation, and general fluid handling. 

With an emphasis on flexibility, PANS produces special subsea and cryogenic-rated valves along with standard catalog offerings in their China cast steel globe valve factory. They export products worldwide and continue innovating new materials, testing methods, and control solutions.


Specifying the optimal globe valve involves balancing application requirements, materials needs, flow control precision, and budget. Cast steel valves shine thanks to their flexible and integrated designs. 

PANS Group has over 40 years of experience crafting specialized cast steel valves to meet unique demands. Contact PANS today to explore how their quality cast valve products can solve your industrial flow control challenges.

Article Source
PANS uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Our commitment to accuracy and reliability ensures that readers receive well-researched information they can trust.
Tags: valves